The CE marking, like any other marking or norm, is sometimes misappropriated. For instance, it is occasionally employed on products that fail to meet the requisite conditions for its application or become subject to counterfeiting and imitation. The CE marking, in effect since 1993, serves the purpose of attesting to the compliance of products with … Read more

The CE Marking

The CE marking is mandatory for products falling under one or more European directives that explicitly require its application. Products not covered by any of these directives are prohibited from bearing the CE marking. The CE marking affords products the privilege of unrestricted circulation throughout the entirety of the European Union’s territory. To secure and … Read more

What should go in a distribution agreement

What should go into a distribution agreement and why ? The first question that a manufacturer and distributor will have to address when entering into a distribution arrangement is whether to have a written distribution agreement. From the manufacturer’s point of view, it would be bordering on foolhardiness not to have such an agreement. From … Read more

Commercial mediation

Authorities, different institutions and other economic actors have a growing interest toward mediation in order to solve commercial issues. Some significant mediation centers have been created in France in particular the CMAP (Mediation and Arbitration Center of Paris) as well in the international sphere with the ICC. As a consequence, the biggest French companies, members of the … Read more

Foreign employment : Flexibility and tax advantages in France

Cadres, Employés and Expats – Tips and a Practical Calculation for Income Tax ! France is currently planning on making labour rules more flexible while at the same time cutting costs for employers. Since the 90s France has been facing a steady growth in unemployment, which seems to be stuck above 10 per cent now. … Read more

Ce Marking in France

CE marking  was set up according to European technical harmonisation laws   CE marking  is mandatory for all products covered by one or more European directives which expressly provide for it and it guarantees free movement throughout the EU for these products. In order to be authorized  to mention CE marking to their products, manufacturers must carry … Read more

French employment law

The law governing the employment rules and the relations between employers and employees is enshrined in the Labour Law Code (Code du travail) which has been recently amended in depth, and for further details in specific industries by the Conventions Collectives The employment contract No article in the Labour Law Code (LLC) gives an accurate … Read more

Employment Law in the UK

There are minor differences in employment law which governs England and Wales than that which governs Scotland and Northern Ireland. This memorandum serves to give you a short overview of employment law that applies in England and Wales. Terms and Conditions of Employment Employers are required to provide every employee with a written contract of … Read more

Moral harassment

Moral harassment came to take importance since more and more cases were brought to the Court and moreover since the series of suicide of certain employees. It is defined from the articles L1152-1 to L1152-6 of the labor Code. Any employer shall not have a humiliating or persecutory behavior toward his employees. He has to … Read more

International employment contract

Introduction An employment contract is international when a foreign origin element is attached to the contract (it can be due to the nationality of the parties or the place where the contract is executed). Thus, they have to follow specific rules. Indeed, two main provisions determine the relevant applicable law. -The Rome Convention applies to … Read more

CCI Arbitrattion

The XX century saw international commercial arbitration gain worldwide acceptance as the normal way of resolving international commercial disputes. In that regard, the International Court of Arbitration was established in 1923. If the parties decide to resolve their litigation through arbitration, the ICC (International Commercial Court) recommends to use in their contract a standard clause … Read more

International arbitration

Definition Arbitration is said to be international when a dispute implicates the interests of international trade (Article 1492 of the code of civil procedure). The arbitration is set up thanks to a contract which can be either an arbitration clause or an arbitration agreement. The specificity of international arbitration is that all the clauses as … Read more

Best practices for commercial litigation

‘Best Practices’ for Commercial Litigation in France Less complicated, less time consuming and less costly   This white paper elaborates on some of the most important jurisdictional factors that determine the time scale of commercial litigation in France. It specifically aims at lawyers and business men who want to get more familiar with the French … Read more

French Insolvency Law

An important area of French Law, which is likely to be encountered by non-French practitioners, is Insolvency Law. Whilst this list may not be held to exhaustive, the following points might be of comparative interest to practitioners used to the quite different provisions of many Common Law systems. The definition of insolvency at French Law is … Read more

Banking Law

The field of Banking Law is extremely wide and this page attempts to address only one particular area : the needs of financial institutions outside France, who seek information relating to security or collateral offered in regard to goods, chattels or real property in France. There is no equivalent at French Law to the floating charge … Read more

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